Equality between women and men and non-discrimination are fundamental principles of the Constitution of the Portuguese Republic and of the Treaty establishing the European Union – Lisbon Treaty. It is also part of the Sustainable Development Objectives (ODS), in particular Objective 5 «Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls», either as a specific objective or as a cross-cutting objective and a requirement for compliance with all other ODS.
Today, in Portugal, there are no gender-based discrimination in the law, but despite the existence of a favorable legal framework, the reality remains quite different for women and men, resulting in women being denied access to the labor market. participation in the public sphere, including access to participation in political activity, and for men to participate in family life.Read More
Thus, in general terms, the following asymmetries between women and men continue to persist:
- The participation rate of women and men in the labor market is uneven, reflecting the existence of the gender pay gap and consequently the greater number of poverty situations among the female population;
- In private enterprises and in the public administration, the places of leadership are mostly occupied by men, although the number of women with higher education is higher than that of men;
- The existence of professions tendentially female and tendentially masculine;
- Different participation and use of time between women and men with regard to family life, with women still assuming most household chores;
- Although parental leave under the law can be shared by both mother and father, there are still few men who receive this right, largely because of the way they are stigmatized in their workplace;
- Higher incidence of domestic violence crimes against women;
- Existence of psychosocial barriers with regard to access to political positions and participation in civic life in general by women.
It is therefore on the basis of the existence of these inequalities in gender relations that an integrated intervention in the various spheres of society, with a view to promoting full equality between women and men, seems to be an urgent need.